Research Paper Guide

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PARENTHETICAL NOTATION

 

After you have made a statement, which you have borrowed from a particular source (any sentence that is not a topic or clincher sentence), you MUST tell me that you got it from a specific source.  If you do not complete this step, or if you do this step incorrectly, it is considered plagiarism.  You must use parenthetical notations whether you used exact words from the author or whether you put the information in your own words using only the main idea.   If you used the author’s exact words, you must use quotation marks around the quote.

  

HOW TO USE PARENTHETICAL NOTES:

 

Example 1:  William Golding uses symbolism to convey the true meaning of evil (Jones 33).

 

In this example, you put the information in your words.  You used the information from page 33 of the book by Jones.  This book contained information about the topic of your paper.  Notice where the period is.  If comes AFTER the parenthesis.  For more information on this particular source that you used, one could simply refer to the works cited page and find the book by Jones.

 

Example 2: Julius Caesar was one of the “greatest leaders in the history of the world” (Smith 156).

 

In this example, the author’s exact words were used in the paper, so you must put the words in quotation marks when you use them in your paper.  Notice where the quotation marks fall at the end of the quote.  You use this form when the quotation is four typed lines or less.  If the quotation is more than four lines, consult your grammar book for special instructions.  In this research paper, you are restricted to using short quotations.

 

Example 3:  According to Baker, the Middle Ages were a time of darkness, despair, and destruction (224). 

 

Notice that since you already mentioned the author’s name (Baker) within the sentence, you only have to write with one page number after the sentence.

 

 

FORMAT FOR THE ROUGH DRAFT AND FINAL COPY OF THE RESEARCH PAPER

 Rough Draft:

The rough draft should be submitted on time, typed, and stapled.  The rough draft must be double-spaced and look like a final draft, except that you do not turn in your highlighted sources.  The rough draft should follow proper MLA margins and parenthetical documentation. Include the Works Cited page with the rough draft.

 

Final Copy:

 The final copy should include everything from the rough draft - body of paper and works cited - plus a photo of your subject (Appendix A) and your sentence outline. Place these items, stapled together, in the left pocket of your folder.  Place all your highlighted sources in the right pocket of your folder before turning in.

    

  •      Keep an extra copy of your research paper at home

  •     The paper is due beginning on _______________ through _____________ ONLY. 

  •     Only your name and period should appear on the outside of your folder. 

  •     Make sure you have read and spell-checked the paper.

Numbering the Pages:

 

Begin numbering on the second page of the body.  Assuming the first page of the body is page 1, the second page of the body is page 2.  Your computer will automatically place your name and appropriate page numbers on your paper if you tell it to.  How to accomplish this:

  •        In Microsoft World, click “view” on the top task bar

  •        Click on “header and footer”

  •        A “header box” will appear on the screen.  Press “ctrl” and “r.”  Then, type your last name     in the box.

  •        Then, on the header box task bar, click the # icon.    This will tell the computer to   
      automatically number each page of your research paper and place your name at the top
       right of each page. 

 

Heading on Page 1

 

It is a bit different from the rest of your paper.  Your heading on page one is in the upper left of the first page, and you have to type it yourself:

 

Joey Smoey (Your name)
English 10
Mrs. Adams
Date of Final Paper

 

Works Cited Page

 

The name for the page that lists all of your sources is no longer called the “bibliography” page.  Bibliography refers to only information gathered from books.  Today, your research may come from a variety of sources including books, periodicals, the Internet, computerized databases, CD-ROMs, personal interviews, and e-mail.

 

q       This page is now called the “Works Cited” page.  On this page, you will list the sources you used in alphabetical order.  If you have discarded some of the articles that you originally thought you would use, DO NOT include those on this list.  I should be able to find ANY source listed on this page parenthetically documented somewhere within the body of your paper.

 

q       Remember to double space between your entries and within your entries

 

q       Use one inch margins on all sides

 

q       Be sure to number this page as next in line numerically after the last page of the paper’s body.

 

 

Sample from a Works Cited Page

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                       Smoey      6

 

          

Works Cited

 

 

             Blake, James.  Russian Life in the 1890s: Savage Raids Crush Jewish
 

                Families.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000.

 

            Gordon, John, and Jane Smith.  “Changes in Russia.”  Time 3 March 2001:

                16-20.

 

                Walton, Susan.  “Russia’s Games.”  Newsweek.  5 January 2002: 6.




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Need more help? Read questions and answers from fellow students below. If you're question hasn't already been asked, ask it now.

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What about primary/secondary sources--Do those have a certain order of appearance on a works cited page in MLA?

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